How to maximize 造纸机的衣服 value through innovation
Guideline to set up your paper machine trials
This article is the follow up on the previous article about 依赖PMC供应商. Below I’d like to share the practical principles and actions that spring from an innovative mindset, ensuring a paper mill gets maximum value from its paper machine clothing.
You can read them as guidelines in making your paper mill and paper machine future proof, ensuring a competitive advantage.
All paper machines are different with their own complexities, so I trust you to recognize how the principles and hands-on strategies apply to your situation.
Once you realize there is an actual HOW to innovate and improve your paper machine performance, it will become harder to deny the necessity of making changes that may seem inconvenient at first, but are highly profitable in the end.
For the purpose of this blog, I’ll share 3 important principles:
Realize your paper machine, and its clothing, is not a black box.
Define an objective target that can be translated into money.
Know how to brief and select the PMC supplier for your trial.
第1部分. Realize Your Paper Machine, and Its Clothing, Is Not A Black Box
Almost out of despair some papermakers see their Machine Clothing, in combination with a capricious machine, 作为一个复杂的黑盒, which could be one of the reasons why they are quite happy to leave it all to the supplier.
Talking about black boxes: in the scientific world they have a thing called a complex system. This is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other. Its behavior is difficult to predict due to all the dependencies, relationships and other interactions between its components.
Doesn’t that sound like a paper machine? With machine clothing being one of those components?
Most people work problem-oriented. 首先定义一个问题, 然后研究了这个问题的原因，最后提出了一个解决方案来消除这个问题的原因. 然而, in a complex system it is often impossible to find the root cause, 即使你知道, you most likely cannot eliminate it without creating new problems somewhere else.
For complex systems it is more functional to work solution-oriented. This requires a little mind shift: focus on the desired outcome, not on the problems. It is no news that every machine has its bad days. But not all problems appear all the time. There are always times when the machine is running fine. When you work solution-oriented, you focus on the good times.
These positive exceptions are the gateway to solutions. Investigate what is different those days, compared to most of the bad days. 请注意，从心理学的角度来看，关注为什么事情进展顺利也会更好. 研究积极的事物会释放能量，与问题调查相比，人们会更加合作，而问题调查往往会导致责备和防御行为.
第2部分. Define One Objective Target That Can Be Translated Into Money
When looking at your machine clothing and comparing the good and the bad times, you may notice many different things. 机器的不良时期可能与毛毡的磨合阶段或成形织物的寿命结束相一致. The number of web breaks in the wet-end of the machine might be substantially different. Good times may show far less vibrations in the fourth press. You can probably find numerous things. But when you start optimizing a complex system, you must focus on one goal only with no more than two or three conditions.
非常重要的一点是，你对你的业绩目标有一个非常清晰的愿景，以及当你的目标实现时你将节省多少钱. You need a one objective metric (KPI) that can be translated into money. 这将为您的决定提供必要的管理支持，以试验新的机器服装. 它还将创造出最大可能让生产经理和财务经理都满意的结果.
An example: you might have discovered that during good times you have two web breaks per day, compared to an overall average of three breaks per day. In that case your goal could be no more than two breaks per day, under the condition that the average machine speed and paper quality remain as they are now. Don’t be tempted to also imagine a higher machine speed or anything else, focus on only one improvement at a time, everything else will have to stay “as they are now”.
When an average web break lasts 20 minutes, reducing the number of web breaks from three to two per day will give you 1.45%的生产 per day. This can easily be translated into hard dollars. In this example the KPI would be less than 2 web breaks per day.
The KPI you select must be relevant, measurable, and as objective as possible. The complexity of a paper machine, the many parameters that influence the total result, is often used as an excuse for not being able to set clear goals and select supporting KPIs. When setting the goals, simply ignore the external factors.
Example KPIs Related To Machine Clothing
Apart from the number of web breaks per day in the wet-end, you could use some of the following KPIs to monitor the performance of paper machine clothing:
试车时间:在试车完成后，机器恢复到一定速度所需的最长时间. The yield is more production per felt lifecycle.
蒸汽量(在第一个干燥器部分)每吨纸:这是一个很好的指示器，纸张干含量离开压榨部分, hence the dewatering efficiency of the forming and press section together. Less steam consumption = money saved.
安装布料或毛毡的时间:如果更换机器服装是您停机计划中的瓶颈, 这可能是一个完美的KPI. Again, the yield is more production per felt lifecycle.
The following KPIs are possible too, although they have their limitations.
Dry content of the sheet is a difficult one. 在大多数的机器是不容易客观地测量在成型或加压部分出口的纸张干燥度. Usually the automatic measuring frames are located further down the machine, so its test results are already affected by many other components in the machine as well.
每个毛毡或织物的生产吨数:如果你的机器没有速度限制，生产吨数是一个很好的衍生表干燥. The higher the dryness at the forming and/or press section, the higher the machine speed and the output. This KPI is not perfect because it is not directly related to machine clothing; it is not specific.
Keep your goals and KPIs realistic. Discuss the desired target with your current supplier and two or three new suppliers. It is essential that the goal is achievable.
There Is More Than Meets The Eye
When determining and calculating your KPI, take as many relevant factors into account as possible. 例如, if your Machine Clothing trial reduces the number of maintenance shutdowns per year by 2, you’ll have more production time. But you also must factor in the savings in the maintenance department, 例如, in the reduced need for temporary workers.
水从来都不是免费的. You need to pump it, clean it, maybe pay duties. 所有这些都需要付出代价.
Steam也不是免费的. So include the costs for fresh water, the energy costs to make it, for maintenance of the boiler and piping, 等.
Maintenance staff and equipment have a price.
Calculate realistic prices for your resources. 有些人在计算中忽略或使用了非常低的蒸汽价格，因为“这已经是卡夫生产线的一部分了”。. 再想想. What could be done with the steam you would save? Could the Kraft line produce more? Could the offices be heated? Could the excess steam be sold to a neighboring factory?
As a production manager, you should push the ‘bookkeepers’ to give you detailed, inclusive numbers
and keep on pushing until they do. 很明显，如果生产部门能在生产过程中给他们提供未来储蓄的隐藏宝藏，金融专家也更有可能看到和抓住储蓄的机会.
生产和财务之间的知识共享习惯将导致更好的投资决策, not limited to 造纸机的衣服 trials.
With a realistic grip on the financial potential, a paper mill can determine the acceptable return on investment for the project.
How To Calculate Your Machine Clothing Trial Budget, think of it as an investment
When you start trials with felts or fabrics, you will experience ups and downs. You may have to cut a piece prematurely and it might even require an unplanned shutdown. So how do you avoid the costs of trials getting too high? The answer is: by making a budget and carefully monitoring it.
For easier understanding I will use an example calculation which is completely fictional.
Current production of the machine: 360,000 tons per year = 1,000 ton/day = 42 ton/h
Sales price is $ 1,000/ton, the contribution margin is 30%.
If the machine runs, it makes $ 12,600/h (42 ton/h * $ 1,000/ton * 30%)
到目前为止，一切顺利. 现在让最信用的十大网投用这样一种情况，即最信用的十大网投想要将湿端休息的次数从每天三次减少到两次, 每组20分钟. 结果是1.45%的生产.
This company requires a ROI of 6 months or less.
Hence the investment budget for the trials is: 1.45% * 1000 ton/day * 180 days * $ 1,000/ton * 30% margin = $ 783,000
If during the ROI period of 180 days money is saved somewhere else, 像能源成本, these savings can be added to the investment budget.
In this example there is a budget for machine clothing trials of close to $ 800,000 to cover the costs for:
additional felts and fabrics – expect 2 or 3 trials that need to be cut early;
additional downtime – the installation time required to replace the prematurely cut trials;
temporary suboptimal production quantity – allow a certain loss during 3 to 4 trials;
temporary suboptimal production quality – this should be kept to an absolute minimum;
other items, depending on the specifics of the trial.
Now that you have a goal, a KPI to monitor progress and a budget, it is time for the next step.
第3部分. Briefing And Selecting The 造纸机的衣服 Supplier
The next step will be to select a supplier to do the trials with. Because you have established the metrics, 目标和预算, 向潜在的供应商介绍情况，并在双方都受益于审判结果的情况下达成协议，将相对容易一些.
WARNING, or rather strong advice: stick to working with only one supplier per trial to keep focus.
At the same time and for reasons mentioned in the first section of this paper, 不时地引进新的供应商将会在你意想不到的领域创造出刺激创新的动力和更好的结果.
Practical Tip To Bring A New PMC Supplier Faster On To Steam.
与当前的供应商相比，新的供应商有一个缺点:他不知道你的机器的‘正常’. 毕竟, 特定的机器设置或感觉属性对一台机器来说是正常的，而对另一台机器来说是完全不正常的. This is why machine clothing suppliers need a frame of reference for every machine they supply. They can build that themselves by doing service measurements for months, but it is costly and time-consuming.
时间就是金钱. If you can make more money with your machine, you would rather start today than in six months. 生产经理可以通过建立“机器服装参考框架”，并将其提供给新供应商，从而帮助新供应商最小化学习曲线.
Such a smooth period cannot be predicted, only observed. The opportunity needs to be seized. 这意味着，机器生产人员始终处于最佳的位置来组成参考数据集. 更重要的是，在“一帆风顺”的情况下，操作人员最有可能找到必要的时间. 磨机组成一个适当的数据集的另一个优点是，所有的测量将用一套仪器来完成, 而不是每个PMC供应商都自带校准和精度未知的设备.
This article is shown in the final part, section three “How a mill took advantage of PMC trials” a case study with a European paper mill.
所以请记住 DDPP - Daily Data Powers Production.
Toward better 造纸机的衣服,